26 Mar, 2022
Rice is the staple diet of 40 percent of the Indian Population. As being the staple and most demanded food item rice follows a proper climatic condition which makes it look pure white as a diamond and healthy as every other food item.
The scientific name of rice is Oryza Sativa which specifically means paddy. Rice is rich in carbohydrates. It is the main food crop and vital ingredient of food in all parts of India.
Other Terms of Rice.
Flaked rice is a sort of rice that has been smoothed or parboiled and is used to make a variety of dishes. Sake is an alcoholic beverage made from rice that has undergone fermentation. The smoothed parboiled rice, also known as paddy, is used as a fuel and in the production of bricks.
Climatic Conditions Required to Grow Rice Are as Follows.
1. Rice is classified as a Kharif crop, which requires a high temperature of at least 25 degrees Celsius.
2. Rice is cultivated with irrigation in places with less rainfall, primarily in the northeast, coastal areas, and deltaic regions.
3. Due to their improved water holding capacity, or water retention capacity, soils with higher clay content are best suited for rice development and production.
Types of Rice cultivation.
1. Wet cultivation in the rain.
Rice production in the wet state is a sort of subsistence farming. A level piece of land with an adequate proportion of clayey soil is necessary, as clayey soil has a higher water-holding capacity and is best suited for wet agriculture.
Since the area is often tiny in wet farming, steps are built into the hill slopes to create terraces that are level land for rice production.
Wet cultivation does not require a huge investment. Traditionally, wooden plows and tractors have been employed. Canals are also constructed to irrigate the fields.
2. Red rice Cultivation
Many red-cereal types are grown in harsh environments, such as sandy soils, salinity, deep water, drought, and freezing temperatures. Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Bihar, Orissa, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, and the northeastern states are rich in red rice.
3. Black rice cultivation.
The production of black rice necessitates at least 3 to 6 months of warm weather and extensive growth seasons. This rice thrives in bright sunshine and lots of water. Germination, on the other hand, necessitates a constant temperature of 21 degrees Celsius. Only a few farmers plant black rice, mainly in Manipur, India's northeastern state.
Top 10 Rice Producing States in India.
1. West Bengal
Despite having only 2.78 percent of the country's cultivable land, West Bengal is an important agricultural state in eastern India. West Bengal produced 14.80 million tons of rice in 2014-15, accounting for 14.03 percent of the country's total production and making a significant contribution.
Farmers cultivate rice in the lower Gangetic plains, particularly in Midnapore, Bardhaman, 24 Parganas, Birbhum, and other areas. As a result, it is stated that this state produces the most rice in India.
2. Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh is the second-largest producer of rice as it cultivates rice in 70 districts out of which 7 districts are under the 29 districts are in the high productivity group, 29 are in the medium productivity group, 26 are in the medium-low productivity group, 5 are in the low productivity group, and 3 are in the very low productivity group.
The triennium average area of the high productivity group (yield more than 2,500 kg/ha) in seven districts was 5.91 lakh hectares, accounting for 10.4% of the state's total rice acreage (56.91 lakh hectares).
Rice production accounts for almost a quarter of the state's farmed land. Bareilly, Muzaffarnagar, Gorakhpur, Lakhimpur Kheri, Faizabad, Barabanki, and other key rice-producing districts in the state include Bareilly, Muzaffarnagar, Gorakhpur, Lakhimpur Kheri, Faizabad, and Barabanki.
Jaya, Panth-4, Mahsuri, Pusa Basmati Rice, and Kasturi Basmati Rice are all available in Uttar Pradesh. Farmers also harvest rice on 59 hectares in Uttar Pradesh.
Punjab is the third-largest producer of rice in India. The state has 2.6 million under rice production which is exclusively an irrigated area.
Some of the production restrictions for rice production in Punjab is the water shortage or scarcity due to early summer as well as unstable intensive rice production systems and the presence of salt and absence of microelements in the soil leads to the decline of the organic content of the soil, uneven fertilizer use, and bacterial leaf blights are some of the limitations.
The most common type of rice grown in the Punjab region is Basmati 370. Farmers have used crop rotation and perennial irrigation sources to grow rice
In terms of rice yield per hectare, Punjab is at the top of the list. Patiala, Firozpur, Ludhiana, and Sangrur are the state's major rice-producing districts.
4. Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is the largest and most popular state for producing rice in southern India. Rice is grown on 2.2 million hectares of land in the state. Amsipiti Dhan, Aravan Kuruva, Aduthurai, Akshayadhan, and Ambasamudram are some of the kinds produced in Tamil Nadu.
According to studies, each hectare produces roughly 39000 kg of rice. Tiruvarur, Thanjavur, Tiruvannamalai, Villupuram, and Nagapattinam are also prominent rice-producing districts in Tamil Nadu.
5. Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh is the fourth-largest producer of rice in India. Andhra Pradesh produced 8.64 million tons of rice in 2020. Andhra Pradesh's rice production increased from 7.45 million tones in 2017 to 8.64 million tones in 2020, expanding at a 5.13 percent yearly pace.
Rice is grown in 22 districts across the state of Andhra Pradesh. The rice-producing districts of West Godavari, Krishna, and East Godavari are also the largest in India. In the state of Andhra Pradesh, one can find Samael, Samba Madhuri, Sarvani, and Sassari. In addition, this state produces the most rice in India.
Bihar is the sixth state for the largest producer of rice. Bihar is implementing modern technology to improve rice quality and production.
This state grows Gautam, Dhanalakshmi, Richhariya, and Saroj rice in the winter, and Gautam Pusa-33, Pusa-2-21, CR 44-35 (Saket-4), and Prabhat (90 days only) rice in the summer.
The state of Chhattisgarh ranks seventh in rice production with 61 MLT. It is also known as India's rice bowl since farmers grow over 2000 different varieties of rice here. Chhattisgarh and Odisha are the leading producers of Chudi paddy, Turia Kabri, Lal Dhan, and red bangle paddy.
Odisha is the eighth largest producer state of rice in India. Rice is the most important crop, representing around 69 percent of the farmed land and 63 percent of the total area under food grains.
It is the primary meal of almost the entire population of Odisha, hence increases in rice production and productivity have a major effect on the state's economy.
With 45.16 lakh tons of rice, Assam is ranked ninth. In Assam, the rice production is over 1700 kilos per acre. The vast genetic diversity of rice production in Assam is well-known.
Keralans eat rice as their main meal. Kerala rice agriculture is well-known throughout India. Over the last five years, we've seen encouraging signs of a rebirth in rice production in Kerala. Rice farmers in Palakkad, Kerala's "rice bowl," are showing a renewed sense of joy.
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