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3 Major Types of Crops: Zaid, Rabi and Kharif Crop Seasons in India | Tractorgyan

3 Major Types of Crops: Zaid, Rabi and Kharif Crop Seasons in India | Tractorgyan

    3 Major Types of Crops: Zaid, Rabi and Kharif Crop Seasons in India | Tractorgyan

06 Mar, 2024

In India, agriculture is a widely practiced occupation. When we think of agriculture, we think of farmers and the crops they grow. Plants grown by farmers are referred to as crops. 

A crop is a plant that is left to grow, be cultivated, or be harvested for a short period to earn a profit. Crops are eaten for personal consumption, or they can be supplied, traded, or maintained as a surplus in consideration of future situations.

The soil is the most important factor in crop fertility and style. Whether it's red dirt, black soil, moist, dry, or desert soil, soil plays an important role in every element. 


Types of Crop Seasons In India Based On Seasons

1. Kharif Crops

Kharif crops are those that are planted during the rainy season, from June to September. Monsoon crops are also known as Kharif crops. 

India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh are the leading producers of Kharif crops. 

Kharif crop growth is largely dependent on the quantity and quality of water available, as they require a lot of it to flourish. Too much or too little water might ruin an entire year's worth of work.

Kharif Crops in Cereals are as follows.

Jowar, Rice, Maize (corn), rice (paddy).

Kharif Crops in Fruits are as follows,

Apples, Banana, Coconut, Sugarcane, watermelon, papaya, plums, etc.

Kharif Crops in Seed Plants are as follows

Black Gram (urad), Arhar (tur), Cotton, Cowpea (chavala), Green Gram (moong), Sesame (til), soybean etc

Kharif Crops in vegetables are as follows,

Brinjal, Chili, Bottle gourd, Green Bean, tomato, tinda, turmeric.


2. Rabi  Crops

Rabi crops are planted around the time of the retreating monsoon and the beginning of the northeast monsoon season in October. Winter crops are also known as rabi crops. Rabi crops are harvested between the months of April and May when the summer season is in full swing. 

Rainfall does not affect rabi crops, which require a warm climate for seed germination and a cold climate for crop growth.

Rabi Crops in Cereals are,

Barley, Gram, Mustard, Oat, Wheat, linseed, etc.

Rabi Crops in Fruits are,

Lemon, guava, orange, mulberries, mangoes, grapefruit, orange, etc.

Rabi crops in lentils are,

Chickpea, masoor, pigeon pea, urad pea or toria, etc.

Rabi crops in seed plants are,

Coriander, fenugreek, mustard, sunflower, red gram, or cumin, etc.

Rabi Crop in vegetables are,

Bean, beetroot, broccoli, carrot, garlic, ladyfinger or lettuce, etc.


3. Zaid Crop

The third type of crop that is grown in India is Zaid. The crop is harvested from March to June. In comparison to the seasonal harvests of Kharif and Rabi, this is the shortest season. 

They need warm, dry conditions for most of their growing span, as well as a long day duration for flowering. It is necessary to work during the warm months and during the rainy season. These plants also reach maturity early.

Zaid Crops are as follows,

Watermelon, Muskmelon, Bitter gourd, Strawberry, Cluster beans, Pumpkin, Masur etc.


Cropping Season Year and Crops Grown

Cropping Season

Time of the Year

Crops Grown

Rabi Cropping Season


October- December



April- June

Gram, Mustard, Wheat, Barley, etc.

Kharif Cropping Season





September- October

Udad, Cotton, Soybean, Toor, Rice,

Jowar, Bajra, Moong, etc.

Zaid Cropping Season






Mostly seasonal fruits like pumpkin,

muskmelon, watermelon, and fodder crops.



Different Types of Crops. 

1. Food Crops

Food crops, such as fruit and vegetables, are harvested for human consumption. Grains, such as corn, wheat, and rice, are the world’s most popular food crops.


2. Feed crops

Feed crops are collected to feed livestock such as cows, goats, and other small animals. Crops such as oats, alfalfa, grass, cereals, and other grains are used to feed farm animals. They are grown on agricultural land and contain sufficient nutrients to ensure their health. There are several different types of feed crops:

Forage crops are crops for which livestock production cannot be underestimated. Forages, such as grasses, are consumed directly by animals. Green chop refers to forages that are cut and fed to livestock while still fresh. Alfalfa is a common green chop crop for livestock. 

Some forages are harvested, dried in the field, and then stored. Hay crops are what they're called.

Corn, barley, wheat, and oats are the most common Principal feed crops. Each of these crops has unique characteristics that make it better suitable for the diets of some animals than others. 

As beef and dairy cattle have a tough, four-chambered stomach, barley, which is more difficult to digest, is commonly fed to them. Swine and fowl are fed hull-less barley, which is easier to digest.


3. Fiber crop

Textile and paper products are made from fiber crops like cotton and hemp. Textiles, sometimes known as fabric, are manufactured from dried and processed plant fibers. Most textile fibers come from the stems or roots of plants like flax. Linen is made from flax. 

Fiber can be extracted from other components of a plant. Cotton is gathered from the light, fluffy "boll" of fiber that surrounds the plant's seeds, making it the world's most popular fiber crop. Bamboo textiles are created from the pulp of bamboo plants. 

Other fiber crops' pulp can be used to make several items. In the production of paper products, fiber pulp can be used instead of wood pulp.

For example, cotton, jute, coir, etc. They are traditionally crafted in big factories and then placed in markets for trading—for example, cotton clothes, jute bags, etc.


4. Oil crops

Canola and corn are two examples of oil crops that are harvested for human consumption or industrial purpose. Crops can now be processed and broken down into their essential components, including oil, thanks to technological advancements in the last century. 

Oil crops are harvested for their use in cooking mainly olive oil. Oils that are harvested for industrial uses are oil paints or lubrication for machinery.

Fuels that are been made from oil are known as biofuel. Biofuel has been great in demand as they provide most of the fuel to world transport.


5. Ornamental crops

Ornamental crops are harvested for landscape gardening they are used in-house or for commercial activities.

In many underdeveloped countries, ornamental crop growing is a significant economic activity. Kenya, for example, is a significant rose and carnation exporter. Kenyan flower farmers have set up shop near the beaches of Lake Naivasha and Lake Victoria, where the soil is rich, and the water is plentiful and clean.


6. Industrial crops

Industrial crops are those crops that are produced in factories and industries. Industrial crops include all those crops which are used in the production of industrial goods mainly rubber, fiber, fuel, marijuana, upland cotton, sisal, hemp, etc are some of the examples of industrial crops.

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Recently Asked Question about 3 Major Types of Crops: Zaid, Rabi and Kharif Crop Seasons in India | Tractorgyan

What are the different crop seasons in India?

Zaid, Rabi and Kharif are the different crop seasons in India.

What are Rabi crops?

Rabi crops also known as Winter crops grown in India from October to March.

What are Kharif crops?

Kharif crops also known as Summer crops grown in India from June to October.

Which crops are grown in India during the Rabi season?

Rabi season crops are Gram, Mustard, Wheat, Barley, etc.

Which crops are grown in India during the Kharif season?

Kharif season crops are Udad, Cotton, Soybean, Toor, Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Moong, etc.

Which crops are grown in India during the Zaid season?

Zaid season crops are mostly seasonal fruits like pumpkin, muskmelon, watermelon, and fodder crops.

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