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What is Organic farming? Types and benefits in India

    What is Organic farming? Types and benefits in India

13 Apr, 2022

Organic farming is high in demand in today’s agricultural process. Organic farming not only is a modern way of farming but also convenient and non-hazardous to the environment.


What is Organic Farming?

Organic farming is a type of modern farming which uses environmentally based products that control the harmful effects caused by chemical fertilizers. The organic farming system uses methods like a weed, pest, and disease control. Organic farming largely excludes the use of synthetical compounds of fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, food addictive’s, etc.

Organic Farming mainly relies on crop rotations, using of crops residue, animal manures, legumes, or farm organic wastes, biofertilizers, etc.

Organic farming is thus significant because it is a complete production management method that promotes and increases agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. 

Numerous studies have shown that organic farming practicing produces even higher yields than other agricultural systems. There was also a substantial difference in soil health markers such as nitrogen mineralization potential and microbial population and diversity in organic farms, which were greater. 

Due to enhanced soil health, organic farms experienced much lower insect and disease incidence. Small-scale integrated farming systems can re-energize rural economies and communities.


Advantages of Organic farming

1. Organic farming, as the title suggests, is pure and does not harm the environment; on the opposite, it helps in pollution reduction and environmental health promotion. 

2. It lowers the cost of agricultural production to a level that anybody can afford. 

3. It increases soil health by lowering agricultural production costs. 

4. It ensures that natural resources be used to their maximum potential for short-term advantage while also assisting in their conservation for future generations.

5. It enhances the physical features of the soil, such as granulation, tilth, aeration, and root penetration, as well as increasing the water-holding capacity and reducing erosion. 

6. It enhances the chemical features of the soil, such as nutrient supply and retention, nutrient loss into water bodies and the environment, and beneficial chemical reactions.


Disadvantages of organic farming.

1. One of the most serious problems with organic farming is a lack of proper infrastructure and marketing. 

2. Less production: When compared to chemical products, organic farming produces fewer items in the first few years. As a result, farmers are having difficulty supporting large-scale production. 

3. Organic products are more sensitive to faults and have a shorter shelf life than chemical items. 

4. Limited production: In organic farming, off-season crops are limited and have fewer alternatives.


Consider the following features shared by successful organic farmers when deciding if organic farming is right for you: 

1. A commitment to a safer food supply and environmental protection.

2. Patience and keen observation skills are required. 

3. knowledge of ecological systems 

4. Good marketing skills and a desire to spend time looking for new markets are essential.

5. A readiness to share and learn from others' accomplishments and setbacks (information networks are often underdeveloped for organic farmers). 

6. Flexibility and a willingness to try new ideas and practices.


Different types of organic farming. 

Organic farming is of two types namely.

1. Integrated organic farming 

Integrated organic farming is a zero-waste, cyclical process in which waste products from one operation are recycled into nutrients for other processes. This provides for the most efficient use of resources and boosts production efficiency.


2. Pure Organic farming.

Pure organic farming means avoiding all the unnatural chemicals which are used in the process of farming to obtain the purest form of product from the most natural ingredients.


Methods or Techniques followed for organic farming.

As organic farming has types under these types are there are certain methods or techniques which are followed for a better approach. It mainly focuses on producing crops with a high nutritional value.


1. Crop Rotation.

Crop rotation is the cultivation of different types of crops on the same piece of land over time. Crop rotation is carefully designed and is practiced ensuring the soil nutrients are under control, pest controllers, weeds are also suppressed which built the soil health.


2. Green manure.

Green Manure is a method under which plants which are died or have lost lie and uprooted and are turned into soil for improving the fertility of the soil which is referred to as green manuring and the manure which is obtained by this method is called the green manure.

Some green manuring crops are soybean, moong, groundnut, lemongrass, and other wild grasses.


3. Compost.

In organic farming, compost is one of the most effective natural fertilizers. It's nutrient-rich recycled organic matter that improves soil quality and crop yield.


4. Crop Diversity

Crop diversity refers to both the planting of multiple crops (e.g., carrots, tomatoes, lettuce, and beans on the same farm) and the planting of multiple kinds of a single crop (planting many types of tomatoes).

Crop diversification improves our food supply's genetic diversity. This is especially important for crops that make up a huge portion of global food consumption.


5. Soil Management

The necessity for cultivation is soil. After crop cultivation, the soil's quality decays as nutrients are lost. As a result, soil management is critical for recharging the soil with the nutrients it requires. 

Organic farming's main goal is to improve soil quality by using natural methods. That is why organic farming emphasizes the utilization of bacteria (found in animal feces) to help boost the soil's nutrient levels, making it more fertile for increased production.


6. Weed management.

On the plant, weeds or wild grasses grow unnecessarily. These weeds suck up most of the nutrients in the soil, affecting crop output. As a result, organic farming employs ways to minimize the growth of such weeds.

Weed control strategies include mowing, mulching, and cutting, to name a few. 


To Be Considered. 

Organic farming methods are primarily concerned with improving crop productivity and soil quality through natural means. As a result, we should keep genetic manipulation out of organic farming. 

It should be noted, however, that pollen from modified crops can also be found in seed stocks used in organic farming. As a result, keeping organic farming free of genetic modification becomes increasingly difficult.


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