03 Dec, 2022
Farming is the integral or the most essential activity carried out in our economy. Agriculture is the primary sector of the economy and nearly employs 60 to 65 % of the total population.
Farming activities have been expanding their area of development through new and various types of innovation and use of technology along with a tasked labor force. Farming includes crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers, etc. depending upon the seasonal, geographical, soil, and demand in the economy.
What are the factors that affect farming activities?
Farming activities in India are mainly dependent on or affected by the following factors:
In India, subsistence farming is the predominant or most common style of farming. Farmers primarily engage in subsistence farming for their own consumption. They grow the crops, harvest them, and produce them, but because they are primarily grown for families, there is never any extra to sell on the market.
Even though subsistence farming is carried out manually, it has access to irrigation, electricity, and other essential facilities.
The entire subsistence farming process is carried out for the farmer's own consumption, and the landholding is typically modest and dispersed.
Primitive subsistence farming is a type of subsistence farming where farming is practised mainly over small patches of land using agricultural tools like hoe, Dao, digging sticks, etc.
Primitive subsistence farming depends on the monsoons, soil fertility, and other environmental considerations. Two examples are shifting agriculture and nomadic herding.
Farmers who practice primitive subsistence farming cultivate food for their families as well as themselves. The little surplus can be exchanged as goods or can be sold for money. Due to the farmers' lack of ties to or dependency on landlords or traders, there is a high degree of rural independence even though the economic condition of the rural areas seems to be static and not improving.
Intensive Farming is a type of farming where farmers cultivate the crop in small farmers to receive the maximum output by employing high tasks of the labour force and agricultural tools additionally using chemical pesticides and insecticides to increase productivity.
With limited resources, intensive farming aims to produce as much as possible on tiny farms with as little work as possible. In this type of farming, farmers can grow more than one crop each year, and each hectare of land requires a significant investment of both money and effort. The bulk of our nation's heavily populated areas practices it.
Extensive farming, sometimes known as mechanical farming because of the extensive use of equipment, is a modern method of farming practiced on huge farms. Extensive farming produces only one harvest per year and employs significantly less labor and capital per hectare of land than intensive farming.
Extensive farming refers to the utilization of a wide area of land for cultivation. Because of the bigger area, total production may be high, but per unit production is low.
Commercial farming is a type of farming that is responsible for generating a high amount of revenue in the economy through its practice. Commercial farming is mainly practised in most of the states of India like Gujarat. Haryana, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra. Commercial crops mainly involve the use of chemical pesticides, insecticides, and weed killers it ensures the cultivation of the crop over a large patch of land and uses sufficient to a lot of amounts of water.
Commercial farming being heavily used and strong in its approach employs many people in this farming activity and leads to the generation of employment opportunities, on the other hand, is practised for earning profit in the economy it facilitates foreign exchange policies too.
Plantation agriculture is an extensive type of farming where a single crop, also referred to as a monoculture, is grown on a large farm. Plantation crops are frequently cash crops, meaning they sell for high prices on the global market. Among the produce that is most frequently grown on plantations are sugarcane, coffee, cocoa, bananas, and pineapples.
Plantation agriculture or farming produces high-quality crops, it provides employment opportunities Modern plantation farming techniques are used. crops exported, with the proceeds going toward other things. The harvests that have been developed include tea, espresso, sugarcane, and elastic the cost of doing this was high.
The practice of cultivating crops without water in areas with an annual rainfall of 750 mm to 500 mm or less is known as dry farming, sometimes known as dry-land farming. It is utilized in areas with little rainfall or insufficient irrigation. By utilizing crops, this type of farming preserves moisture.
Wetland farming is a type of farming practised in areas that are highly dependent upon rains and generally, it is practised in rainy seasons only when the climate is moist with well-irrigated areas and the soil seems sufficient to hold and retain moisture.
Multiple types of crops are grown on a single plot of land in a process known as mixed farming, which is popular in India. Farmers have found mixed framing to be advantageous because it enables them to plant multiple crops quickly.
1. Farming provides a source of income in rural areas: Farming or agricultural practices provide a source of employment or contribute to the revenue in the society as it creates employment opportunities for many people who are disguised as unemployed in the rural areas.
2. Farming improves the environmental condition: Farming provides environmental advantages for say, as a farmer, you can contribute to maintaining the vital balance of life needed for the environment to thrive by recognizing and prioritizing the biodiversity on your land.
For humans and other animals to survive over the long term, healthy biodiversity is essential. Additionally, it immediately improves soil health, lowers erosion, produces healthier pollinators, and makes it possible for more efficient water conservation—all of which are critical for productive farming.
A new Step in farming is organic farming :
The practice of organic farming paves the way for reliable food sources. Through crop rotation, cover crops, and soil tilling, organic farmers try to increase the fertility of their soil. Farmers enable groundwater to preserve greater purity and cleanliness by preventing the use of pesticides. These techniques promote crop biodiversity, preserve more natural areas around farms, and develop flora and wildlife habitats.
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