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Types of Farming in India: Factors and Importance

Types of Farming in India: Factors and Importance

    Types of Farming in India: Factors and Importance

06 Feb, 2024

Different types of Farming in India play a major role in improving the livelihood of two third of the people reciting in India. Today, India ranks second in agricultural production in the world and produces diverse crops and raw materials for industries compared to other countries in the world. Thanks to the modifications in technologies and farming equipment over time that have led our farmers contribute to the development of their people and nation. Moreover, various Sociocultural practices, climatic conditions, and other aspects have also contributed to the advancement of Different types of agriculture systems in India in 2024. Presently India practices traditional as well as modern methods of farming.

Different types of Farming systems in India depend on the land, climatic conditions, available irrigational facilities, and Locations where they are most suitable. There are mainly 3 types of Farming systems that are generally practiced, which are subsistence farming, organic farming, and industrial farming. Types of agriculture is mainly based on geographical locations and thus differs in the types and follows diverse farmings such as horticulture, ley farming, agroforestry, and many more. However, India is highly reliable in its monsoon cycle for large crop yields. Moreover, agriculture is the main occupation and plays a crucial role in the socio-economic growth of the country

So, all these facts lead us to know more about the types of farming systems in India: along with factors, and the importance of farming in the Indian economy.

Types of Farming In India

types of farming

Let's understand the Different types of farming practiced in India based on location, climate, technology advancement, labor, demand, etc.

1. Subsistence Farming

subsistence farming

The majority of farmers in India practice subsistence farming mainly for their livelihood without expecting profit from the output. They cultivate for their self and their families. They use small and scattered land holdings use basic tools for farming. These types of farming methods generally do not involve fertilizers and HYV seeds in their fields. However, they have access to irrigation, electricity, and other essential facilities, despite working manually. Usually, the traditional method of farming is practiced in subsistence farming and the resulting yield is not high. The family consumes the majority with a negligible amount left to sell in the market.

 

2. Intensive and extensive Farming

intensive and extensive farming

Intensive farming involves maximum production on a limited area of land with all human and capital efforts possible under the given circumstances. Intensive farming allows the farmers to raise more than one crop a year and requires high capital and human labor on every hectare of land. This type of cultivation is usually carried out in densely populated areas of India.

 

Whereas, Extensive farming is the advanced method with extensive use of machines. Hence, also called mechanical farming. These types of agriculture in India cultivates only one crop a year and the need for labor and capital per hectare is less compared to intensive farming.

 

3. Commercial Farming 

commercial farming

Commercial Agriculture involves raising crops on a large scale basis, which aims to export the products to other countries. Thus, increasing the foreign reserve of the country. This method of farming is mainly carried out in Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, and Maharashtra, etc. whereas the crops majorly grown are Wheat, cotton, sugarcane, corn, etc. the type of farming process involves the use of fertilizers, pesticides, HYV seeds, etc to produce a large amount of yields.

 

4. Plantation Farming 

plantation farming

Plantation farming involves growing bushes or trees in a large-scale area. This method is capital centered and requires good management ability, technical knowledge, modern machinery, fertilizers, and better irrigation and transport facilities, among others. Plantation farming is practiced with single crops like rubber, tea, coconut, coffee, spices, fruit crops, etc. The yield from these crops can be obtained continuously for many years. This method of farming aims at exporting the product and focuses on the marketing ability of the crop. It is majorly carried out in Kerala, Karnataka, Assam, and Maharashtra.

 

5. Dry Land Farming

dry land farming

Dryland farming is carried out by growing crops without irrigation systems in areas with inadequate or low rainfall of 750 mm – 500 mm or less. in this type of farming, moisture is maintained by cultivating specific types of crops, such crops are gram, jowar, bajra, and peas. These crops require less water to grow. This type of farming method is carried out in dry areas such as western, north-western India, and central India.

 

6. Wetland Farming

wetland farming

Wetland farming is highly favorable for the monsoon season, as it relies on rains and can also be practiced in well-irrigated areas. It includes crops like rice, jute, and sugarcane. These types of agriculture in India are carried out in areas of the north, northeastern, and western ghats of India.

 

7. Mixed Farming 

mixed farming

Mixed farming involves growing two or more crops and raising animals simultaneously. This type of cultivation method allows growing one or more crops at the same time despite having a different maturing period. Mixed farming requires good rainfall or good irrigation facilities.

farming in india

 

8. Organic Farming

organic farming

Organic farming is a popular method in which the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, etc are eliminated. The crops are raised using crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, and crop rotation to maintain soil quality and productivity. Thus, this method of farming includes the cultivation of plants and the rearing of animals naturally.

 

9. Co-operative Farming

co operative farming

Co-operative farming is a new concept, which is the pooling of all the farming resources in one place such as fertilizers, pesticides, and farming equipment like tractors excluding the pooling of land. This new type of farming aims to bring all the land resources of farmers in an organized and united way, through which they can be in a position to grow crops on all of the lands to the best of the fertility of the land. 

 

10. Terrace Agriculture (terrace cultivation)

terrace cultivation

Terrace agriculture is practiced by cutting hill and mountain slopes to form terraces and this piece of land can be used for agriculture permanently. Flat land is impossible in hilly areas and mountains, so terraces are built to provide a small patch of leveled land. This type of farming in India lets you identify soil erosion from terrace formations on mountain slopes.

 

11. Crop Rotation

crop rotation

This type of agriculture in India is done by following a fixed system of cultivating several specific crops one after the other in a fixed rotation pattern to maintain the fertility of the soil. The rotating pattern of crops can be completed in a year or it can take more than a year.

 

12. Dairy Farming

dairy farming

Dairy farming involves the rearing of livestock to produce milk. India has 3 times as many dairy animals compared to the US and generates around 75 million tons of milk. Dairy farming is a type of subsistence farming and in India, 40% of farmers engaged in milk production because it is a livestock enterprise in which they can engage with relative ease to improve their livelihoods. Selling milk regularly can move them from subsistence farming to earning a market-based income. Around 40 million households in India are partially dependent on milk production.

 

13. Ley Farming

ley farming

In India, ley farming is practiced in dry lands which aims to restore soil fertility. The process includes the rotations of grasses and food grains in a targeted area. This method of farming is also promoted to practice organic farming in drylands. Ley farming repairs or provides compensation against crop failures occurred due to frequent droughts. This way, Soil fertility can be improved and maintained by implementing natural soil biological processes. 

Factors That Affect Farming In India

factors that affect farming in india

After understanding the types of farming in India, let’s discuss Several factors that affect or impact farming practices in India. Such factors are categorized into (1) physical factors (2) economic factors (3) others.

1. Physical Factors

Physical factors affecting farming in India are further divided into 1. Climate 2. Soil and 3. Topography.

A. Climate: Climate plays a crucial role in agriculture. Plants and crops rely on heat and moisture for their proper growth. Regions less than 10°C are not suitable for plant growth. Whereas, farming is impossible in dry areas without better irrigation facilities. Also, the moisture requirements vary from crop to crop and region to region.

B. Soils: The quality of soil is the other determining factor of whether the crop is sown or the plant will yield high productivity or not. Soils differ based on physical and chemical composition. Further, The fertility of the soils also declines with constant cultivation., which leads to soil infertility. To make it fertile, it becomes necessary to leave the farming land fallow by practicing crop rotation and using manures and fertilizers.
Topography.

The nature of topography is important in the development of agriculture. It lets you examine the condition of soil erosion, methods of cultivation, and mode of transportation. Hilly regions face soil erosion due to restrictions on the use of machinery and the unavailability of transportation facilities. However, flat regions face less soil damage because of the excess of machines and transportation facilities. In addition, densely populated areas provide cheap labor and a huge market for the framing product.

 

2. Economic Factors

The economic factors that affect farming in India are (1) market (2) transport facilities (3) labour (4) capital (5) Government policies.

A. Market: The market is an economic factor that determines the expenses done in farming processes. The distance from the market decides the cost of transportation. Thus, to avoid such extra expenses crops like vegetables, etc. are grown near the market area. Sugarcane is grown near the urban centers, close to sugar mills, and dairy farming is carried out in the cities.

B. Transport Facilities: The easy availability and development of efficient means of transportation widen the market for farming products.

C. Capital: Farming in India is mechanized due to advancements in technology and thus requires huge capital investments for purchasing machinery, fertilizers, pesticides, HYV seeds, and more. On the other hand, all the farmers in India are not that capable of investing in that machinery, which affects agricultural productivity to a great extent. Hence, the availability of capital plays a major role in the development of the farming sector in India.

D. Government Policies: Government policies also affect farming practices and influence agricultural land use. Government at some times may restrict the cultivation of crops and may encourage the farmers to grow a particular crop. Moreover, Government subsidy or liberal loan in case of specific crop helps in larger acreage under that crop. After 1947, the Government gave tax relief and concessions to the farmers for cultivating jute crops, thus the cultivation of jute increased to a great extent in many areas.

 

3. Other Factors

The level of scientific and technological advancements has a great impact on the farming occupation. Farmers practicing basic methods obtain less yield compared to those that use modern farm technology such as fertilizers, pesticides, machinery, HYV seeds, etc. The land tenure system also has a major effect on the patterns and productivity of crops.

Importance Of Farming In India In 2024

- Agricultural productivity contributes to the country’s GDP growth and thus ups and downs in the sector influence national income:

- Agriculture plays a crucial role in generating employment as two-thirds of the working population of the country is involved in agriculture.

- The farming sector in India makes provision for food for the ever-increasing population.

- As agriculture is the largest industry in India, it plays a key role in increasing the rate of capital formation by doing a Contribution to capital formation.

- The agriculture sector supplies raw materials to various agro-based industries like sugar, jute, cotton textiles, and vanaspati industries. Thus, the development of these industries completely depends on agricultural sources.

- Agriculture increases the Market for industrial products.

- Farming in India plays a key role in internal and external trade and commerce of the country.

- Agriculture is the prime revenue-collecting sector for both central and state budgets and highly contributes to the government budget.

- Agriculture supplies a large number of skilled and unskilled laborers for construction work and in other fields.

- The farming sector has a cost-benefit in several agri-commodities in the export sector because of low labor costs and self-sufficiency in input supply.

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Recently Asked Question about Types of Farming in India: Factors and Importance

What are the different types of farming practices in India?

The different types of farming practices in India are subsistence farming, commercial farming, organic farming, and Ley farming.

What is organic farming and why is it gaining popularity in India?

Organic farming is a method of agricultural production that avoids the use of synthetic chemicals and promotes sustainable practices.

What is Commercial farming?

Commercial Agriculture involves raising crops on a large scale basis, which aims to export the products to other countries.

What is Ley farming?

Ley farming is a practice of alternating periods of cultivation and rests to improve soil fertility and pasture quality.

Which soil is most suitable for farming?

Fertile loam soil is most suitable for farming due to its optimal composition and nutrient-retaining capacity.

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