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Different Types of Mushroom Cultivation in India | Tractorgyan

    Different Types of Mushroom Cultivation in India | Tractorgyan

23 Aug, 2022

One of the most profitable agricultural businesses that you can start with little capital and little space is mushroom growing. In India, mushroom farming is increasingly becoming more popular as a secondary source of income for many people.

Today, mushroom farming is India's most fruitful and lucrative industry. It is progressively gaining popularity in India because it quickly turns the laborious labor of farmers into profit. In India, farmers employ mushroom growing as a secondary source of income. Mushroom cultivation is mainly carried out in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, and Tripura.

Mushroom are delicious in taste it is rich in proteins, fibers, potassium, copper, and other vital minerals. Mushroom comes from a family of fungi. Though mushrooms are included in the family of vegetables. They possess the same characteristics as that of a plant they have 90 percent of water in them and a significantly low amount of calories and fats.

 

                                                                       

 

Cultivation of Mushroom in India

In India, there are two different kinds of mushroom farmers that cultivate the crop on a small basis. While a commercial mushroom grower continues year-round large-scale output. 

The only areas where farmers can grow seasonal button mushrooms are temperate areas like Himachal Pradesh, Jammu, and Kashmir, hilly areas of Uttar Pradesh, and hilly areas of Tamil Nadu, and North Eastern areas. These farmers can only harvest two to three-button mushroom plants per year in these locations.

To succeed in the commercial mushroom growing sector, the following factors must be taken into consideration before beginning mushroom farming: 

For successful Participation and monitoring purposes, the mushroom farm should be located closer to the farmer's home there should be an abundance of water present on the farm. Simple access to raw materials at affordable costs in the area simple access to workers at less expensive costs availability of power at affordable rates, as electricity is a crucial component in the growth of mushrooms. The farm should be free of industrial pollution like chemical vapors, and sewage disposal should be possible. The farm should have room for expansion in the future.

 

Different types of Mushroom

There are mainly three different types of mushrooms grown in India namely oyster mushrooms, paddy straw mushrooms, and button mushrooms. All these mushrooms are of commercial importance they are grown over different techniques, and methods.

 1. Button mushrooms

 The most popular kind of mushrooms are button mushrooms, often referred to as white mushrooms, baby mushrooms, and cultivated mushrooms. These mushrooms can be consumed raw or cooked, and are frequently added to salads, soups, and as toppings for pizza. In the sixteenth century, button mushrooms were first grown. Button mushrooms make up 85% of the annual production of mushrooms.

 Following is a process to grow mushrooms

Compost

The first stage in cultivating button mushrooms is composting. This procedure is carried out in public. On neat concrete platforms, button mushrooms are raised. Compost is prepared in the two types listed below.

a. Natural compost

Natural compost is produced by nature. When producing compost for button mushrooms, some natural ingredients are wheat straw, horse manure, gypsum, and chicken manure. The compost yard should be evenly covered with a mixture of all the components. After that, moisten the prepared compost with a water sprayer.

b. Synthetic Compost

For synthetic compost, we needed urea, gypsum, wheat straw, bran, and ammonium nitrate/ammonium sulphate. To begin, trim the staw to a length of 8 to 20 cm. Now cover the compost with a fine layer of cut straws and mist it with water. You must now thoroughly combine the bran, calcium nitrate, urea, gypsum, and other ingredients.

 

                                                                   

 

Filling the compost trays

The compost that has been processed is a deep brown tint. The compost shouldn't be too damp or too dry when you put it in trays. Spray some water on the compost if it's dry. Allow some water to evaporate if it is excessively wet. You can choose the size of the compost-spreading trays to suit your needs. The depth must be between 15 and 18 cm. Make sure the trays are constructed of softwood as well. Compost must be poured into the trays to the rim and spread out evenly.

Spawning

Spawning is the following stage in the cultivation of button mushrooms. It entails planting mycelium in the beds. There are two methods for spawning: the first is to distribute compost on the tray bed, and the second is to mix mycelium with compost before spreading it on the tray. After sprinkling the tray with water and spawning, you must cover it with newspaper to keep the moisture there.

Casing

The tray must now be covered with a heavy layer of dirt. This soil can be created by mixing garden soil and decomposing cow manure. Casing soil is the term for this soil. This casing soil may hold a lot of water.

Harvesting

The cap should be gently torn off during harvest. To do this, hold it gently between your forefingers, press it into the ground, and then twist it off. Cut off the base of the stalk where mycelial threads and dirt granules adhere.

 

2. Paddy straw Mushroom

The most consumed mushroom in the world is the paddy straw mushroom. The majority of it is grown in south-east Asia. Of all the activities, growing paddy straw mushrooms requires the least amount of investment and is therefore the most lucrative business. Straw mushrooms are fungi that grow on paddy straw. See how paddy straw is used to grow mushrooms below.

Spawning

You must soak paddy straws to develop a mushroom farm. They are known as straw spawn once they have finished reproducing.

Bed preparation

You must now prepare a solid foundation made of earth and bricks that can support the entire weight. Spread spawn on the straw edges and arrange eight bunches of straws with four on each side. Repeat these actions now continuously.

Mushrooming

Usually, 10 to 15 days after spawning, mushrooms start to grow. For the following 10 days, they keep growing. The crop is ready to be harvested as soon as the volva erupts and the mushroom inside is revealed. These mushrooms must be consumed fresh because they have a very short shelf life due to their fragility. 

 

                                                               

                                                  

3. Oyster Mushrooms

The easiest to produce and very pleasant to eat is the oyster mushroom. Unlike button mushrooms, this kind of fungus does not need special growing conditions. Additionally, oyster mushrooms are recommended by doctors to people with diabetes and high blood pressure because they contain less fat. 

For six to eight months out of the year, oyster mushrooms can grow at a moderate temperature of 20 to 300 C and a humidity of 55 to 70 percent. By adding the additional humidity required for its growth in the summer, it can also be grown there. The best growing season is from March or April to September or October in mountainous places, and from September or October to March or April in lowland regions.

Oyster mushrooms are grown with minimum effort as compared with the button mushroom.

Spawning

You notice the emergence of little buds and straw that has shut themselves inside after 10 to 12 days. The optimum time to remove the polythene and place it on shelves is right now. That has to be watered twice a day.

Casing

The tray must now be covered with a heavy layer of dirt. This soil can be created by mixing garden soil and decomposing cow manure. Casing soil is the term for this soil. This casing soil may hold a lot of water.

Harvesting

The cap should be gently torn off during harvest. To do this, hold it gently between your forefingers, press it into the ground, and then twist it off. Cut off the base of the stalk where mycelial threads and dirt granules adhere.

The cost of mushroom cultivation in India costs around 1,00,000 lakh rupees to 1,50,000 lakhs rupees respectively.

 

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