30 Aug, 2022
Agricultural development and enhancement prove to be an integral goal of the farming industry.
With time development and productivity needs to be embellished for diversification of the agricultural and greater productivity of the farming sector.
Development should not be static or rigid it should flow, being continuous allows it to blossom and yield.
India has reached a point in its development when it needs an "evergreen revolution," or the ability to produce more with less water and less space. Crop diversification should be one of the key tactics in this revolution, which should be primarily driven by agribusiness and Agri processing.
Farming can be productive if you learn how to increase output. Farmers now have the option to boost output while preserving the long-term viability of their farm's thanks to new approaches and procedures.
Below are some of the features which can be practiced to increase the productivity of agricultural production:
1. Interplanting or intercropping
Interplanting or intercropping is a method of planting more than one plant over a space of land which further ensures greater or maximum productivity and saves space.
By giving a home to a range of insects, soil creatures, and other organisms that fix nitrogen and other important nutrients in the soil that are lacking in single crop environments, intercropping also promotes good biodiversity.
If a crop fails due to unforeseeable weather conditions, intercropping or interplanting also serves as crop insurance. The dense canopy cover also conserves soil and reduces weed growth. Additionally, it will guarantee improved usage of fertilizers and nutrients that might otherwise be lost to runoff and leaching. Alternate strips of land that run perpendicular to the slope can also be planted with crops to prevent soil erosion and depletion.
2. Introduce land reforms strategies
Land reforms are the first and most important step toward increasing production. Land reform is accomplished using tractors, machinery, and tools. These devices have the characteristics that make difficult farming terrain easy to work in the field successfully. Working in the field is simple, therefore increasing production is simple as well. The most effective way to boost production is through land reform.
3. Raise beds
raised beds have less compacted soil, greater drainage, and soil that heats earlier in the spring, which allows plants to begin growing earlier in the season, raised beds are frequently more productive than beds in the ground. In addition, raised beds are frequently simpler to manage, especially for those with restricted mobility, and tend to have fewer perennial weeds.
With permanent beds planted with numerous rows of crops within beds of the same width in traditional farming systems, crops are planted in separate rows by tractor routes. Fewer walkways, more active growing zones, and thick plantations are the results. Raised beds represent increasing crop output.
4. Use of water adequately
Crops must have access to water to be planted, and water management can increase yield. The best approach to increase productivity is through water management. You can boost the output by up to 50% by using the sprinkler watering system. Tube wells receive a better irrigation system by manufacturing canals for the security of the crops.
5. Credit facilities should be improvised
One of the most fundamental resources for carrying out any agricultural development program is agricultural financing. Due to the extreme poverty of Indian farmers, there is a great demand for appropriate agricultural loans in India. The main strategy for raising small farm production is credit reform. In India, the difference in interest rates between loans and deposits is substantial by worldwide standards. By managing transaction and risk costs, the financial delivery system must become more efficient.
6. Better technology
When a farm is technologically efficient, it is producing as much as possible given the technology it has access to. Inputs including soil quality, labor availability, variable costs, capital expenditures, and even the farmer's age and education can be considered as potential technical efficiency considerations when discussing technology. Technological development also needs to be considered for agricultural productivity.
7. Using nitrogen also adds to the agricultural development
nitrogen is a key component of chlorophyll, which plants utilize to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars when exposed to sunlight, nitrogen is an essential element for plants (i.e., photosynthesis). It is also a crucial part of amino acids, which serve as the building blocks of proteins.
Although along with positive there are certain hindrances which does not lead to agricultural productivity or growth in India these are as follows:
1. Uncertain monsoon or uneven climatic conditions causes a greater factor in stopping the agricultural productivity fluctuations in yields and inadequacy in rainfalls doesn’t yield greater or maximum results as the climate is uncertain so growth is rarely predicted.
2. Poor implementation of farming practices Generation after generation, Indian farmers have continued to use antiquated and ineffective production techniques. Only when appropriate and sufficient manures are employed can production be increased. However, in India, the use of both farmyard manure and artificial fertilizers falls well short of what is required.
It is hardly necessary to emphasize the significance of high-quality seeds for raising agricultural productivity. However, Indian farmers have been utilizing very subpar seeds for decades.
3. Soil infertility or decline over the fertility of soil the primary kind of damage brought on by deforestation and unreliable agricultural methods like shifting cropping is soil erosion. Other causes of soil fertility loss include poor management and repetitive use, which increases salt, alkalinity, and aridity.
4. Old implements and traditional tools like wooden sickles, spades, and plods are frequently employed. Tractors and combines are not used as frequently. Agriculture is outdated because of the employment of these antiquated tools.
5. Cattle play a vital role in agriculture in India due to the country's limited mechanization. Most cattle are weak. The farmer must spend a lot of money on these. Tractor farming takes less time and money than cattle farming. Therefore, these also drive up the price of agriculture.
6. Indian land holdings are quite modest in size. The average size of a holding is 2.3 hectares, and 70% of holdings are much smaller. There are many holdings. The tiny properties make mechanized farming challenging. Implements and irrigation systems are not used effectively.
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