23 Jan, 2023
Coconut farming in India is an evergreen profitable business idea for farmers in India. Coconut plays a very vital role in the Asian economy. And it is generally grown in tropical areas. Moreover, India is the largest producer of coconut following Indonesia and the Philippines. Apart from the usage of copra and coconut oil on a large scale, it also aids in manufacturing soaps, medicines, cosmetics, hair oils and other industrial products. Coconut husk is a source of fiber, which is mainly used in the coir industry. A tender nut gives coconut water, a popular thirst quencher of health and hygiene value. It is a popular business all over India.
Moreover, coconut has numerous uses and health benefits, which increases its demand across the world. Coconut farming can continue yielding fruit for as long as 80 years, which boosts the farmer's profit extensively. From the different members of the palm family, the Coconut tree is acknowledged as the ‘tree of life’ or ‘Kalpavriksha’ due to its endless beneficial products derived from its various parts that contribute to people's survival on earth.
Furthermore, The value-added products fetched from coconut include coconut water, coconut oil, virgin coconut oil, coconut meat, coconut milk, coconut desiccated powder and coconut flour.
There are various commercial hybrid varieties of coconut available, where tall varieties of coconut are majorly grown in most parts of India and other parts of Asia, whereas dwarf varieties are cultivated mainly for parent material in hybrid seed production & tender coconuts.
Tall varieties - Benaulim, Laccadive Ordinary, Laccadive Micro, Tiptur, Tall, Kappadam, Komadan and Andaman Ordinary.
Dwarf varieties - Chowghat Dwarf Orange, Chowghat Dwarf Yellow, Chowghat Dwarf Green, Malayan Yellow Dwarf, Malayan Orange Dwarf.
Water varieties - Bangalore Bondam, Ganga Bondam.
There are various health benefits of coconut. Green coconut or coconut water is very nutritious loaded with vitamins and minerals. Moreover, its pulp is used for eating. Every part of the coconut tree is used in some form or another other which increases its commercial value across the globe. The different uses of the coconut tree are given below:
The Flesh: Food, Milk, and Flour Eat
The Water: A Healthy, Refreshing Drink, different industries
The Oil: For Cooking, Skin, and Hair oil
The Shells: To Steam Food
The Husks: A Natural Scrubber and Craft Material, Ropes, planting
Tree Leaves: Thatching
The Wood: Fires in Traditional Kitchens, and many other
The Flowers: Medicines
1. Tree of life: Coconut tree contributes every inch of their life for your benefit, to become more useful.l It provides you with highly nutritious edible seed, construction and furniture materials, fibre, coir, medicinal contents, oils, tonics, beverage ingredients, and making even dye and facewash.
2. Long-term crop: Coconut is a long-term crop that can live up to 80 years. It offers incredible benefits throughout the span. It grows up and matures quickly, within a matter of 6 -7 years and starts giving yield almost as far as it completes its fruitful stand on the earth.
3. Constant revenue and benefits: Coconut tree plays a vital role in regulating the economy of India. As coconut is a raw material of major industries including soap, oil, coir, industrial products etc, the need is constantly in demand. So those who carry coconut farming in India have easy access to the market on a full-time basis, every 45 days and so, to get a good amount of profit.
4. Low maintenance: Coconut palm stands tall and strong throughout the hot/cold, and dry/ wet seasons. It is known for its strong nature and well-built growth pattern. Coconut palm requires comparatively less amount of manure, fertilizers, pesticides, conditions and water to live a healthy period and provide yield. By taking simple and effective measures, there is a bright chance of running a low-maintenance coconut farm.
5. Extra benefit through intercrops: There is enough space between each coconut tree, which gives the farmer the added benefit of planting various cash crops to improve their income. Major crops like Cocoa, Pepper, Banana, Pineapple etc will give the farmer a chance to utilize the space and better financial stability.
6. Pillar Of Indian Culture: An Indian custom or celebration without the presence of Coconut cannot be imagined. Coconut in India is a sign of good luck and prosperity. Every inaugurations, family functions or beginnings start by placing or breaking a fresh piece of coconut seeking a brighter future.
• Site Selection
Coconut plants are hardy and they can be cultivated under different soil types. Therefore, it needs a good location to start your coconut farm.
Suitable soil for growing coconut plants are loamy, laterite, coastal sandy, alluvial, clayey and reclaimed soils of the marshy lowlands.
• Climate required for coconut farming
The perfect temperature for coconut farming is 27 ± 5° and humidity > 60 per cent. These trees can also tolerate a wide range in intensity and distribution of rainfall. Irrigation is required in areas where rainfall is inadequate.
Commercial propagation of coconut plants is carried out by seed nuts. You can Collect seed nuts when they have attained the desired maturity level.
Coconuts generally have no dormancy period between seed nut harvesting and germination. And they also don’t need pre-planting treatment. So, seed nuts can be planted directly without hassle.
Firstly, Fill up the pits with topsoil and cow dung compost up to a depth of 0.5 to 0.6 meters. You have to do this at least 1 month before planting the plants.
Then make a small pit inside the main pit, so that the nut can be placed accurately. After that, you can plant the seedling inside and fill up the soil.
It is very important to take care of the plant to get a high yield with healthy and fast-growing plants. The tasks included in taking care of plants are:
• Caring for young plants
Besides coconut trees, you can do intercropping to maximize the utilization of soil and sunlight. You can choose from a variety of crops like bananas, pineapple, chillies, groundnut, sweet potato etc. You can expect a better yield of inter-crops for up to 10 years of the coconut plant.
• Pests & Diseases
Pests and diseases are less in coconut plants. Although, you have to keep good contact with an expert in your area to prevent any damage to the plant.
Coconuts are harvested at different times of the year. The frequency of harvesting differs in different areas depending upon the yield of the coconut trees.
In well-maintained and high-yielding gardens, bunches of coconuts are produced regularly and harvesting is carried out once a month.
You can harvest either green or mature coconuts depending on the market demands and the value of the coconuts.
Normally, coconuts become mature in about 12 months after the opening of the spathe. It is the ripe coconut which is the source of major coconut products made in the industries.
It’s very difficult to tell the accurate number or amount of coconut yields. Total yield depends on the variety, maintenance, and conditions under which it is grown. however, the average yield per hectare varies from 10,000 to 15,000 coconuts per year.
Marketing coconuts is a very easy and hassle-free process. As coconuts already have a huge demand and value in the Indian market. You can be able to sell your products easily without any complications to big product companies or local wholesale dealers.
These are the uses, benefits, common steps and ways for starting and operating a successful coconut farming business in India. Hope this guide has helped you to make your decision strong! Good luck!
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