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Seed Drill: Functions, Components & Advantages

Seed Drill: Functions, Components & Advantages

    Seed Drill: Functions, Components & Advantages

18 Jan, 2024

For farmers, having the help of advanced machines and equipment is imperative as they all help them to remain productive and increase their yield output. A seed drill is one such machine that, when used correctly, can help farmers to place the seeds with accuracy and in the right place. 

As seeds are what turn into crops, it’s very important to place them correctly in the soil. Seed drill machines are going to make things easy and hassle-free for farmers on this front. If you’re someone who thinks that investing in this machine is unnecessary, you must read this post as we’re going to discuss the importance, functions, and other crucial aspects of this machine in detail. 

What Is a Seed Drill Machine? 

seed drill

A seed drill is a device or an agricultural tool that helps in sowing the seeds for a crop by metering or measuring the seeds and placing them in the soil at the appropriate depth and distance. It covers them with soil to a particular average depth, preventing birds from eating the seeds by covering them with mud. Sowing with agricultural seed drills can increase crop productivity while also saving time and effort. 

The use of a seed drill greatly boosts the average crop output. No-till planters are drill devices that are used to meter out seeds for planting. A system that takes up seeds from a seedbox and plants them down a tube is developed in the concept. Disc seed drills are a type of agricultural technology that can also be used to disperse fertilizer on the ground. The Seed drill machine price is affordable for farmers, which is suitable for small and marginal farmers. 

Component of Seed Drill

components of a seed drill

A seed drill with a mechanical seed metering system is made up of the following components: (I) the frame (ii) the seedbox (iii) the covering device (iv) the transport wheels.

Let’s break down each of these components. 

1. Frame - The frame of the seed drill is usually made of angle iron along with a suitable cover. The frame is made strong enough to handle all the types of loads which come with the working condition.

2. Seed box - It can be composed of a mild steel sheet or galvanized iron with the appropriate cover. To keep seeds from clogging, a tiny agitator is occasionally included.

3. Covering device - It's a tool for filling a furrow after the seed has been planted. Patti, chains, drag, packers, rollers, or press wheels are commonly used to cover the seeds. They come in a variety of sizes and shapes.

4. Transport wheel - The main axle is equipped with two wheels. Pneumatic wheels are also available on some seed drills. The wheels are equipped with the necessary attachments to convey power to the seed-dropping mechanism.

Functions of a Seed Drill

functions of a seed drill

A seed drill machine is of great help to farmers as it can handle multiple functions: 

i) To transport the seeds: Seed drill machines come equipped with a seed hopper that serves as a storage container for seeds. The machine is responsible for carrying the seeds from the storage location (such as bags or bins) to the field where they need to be sown. The seed hopper can hold a significant quantity of seeds, allowing the machine to cover large areas without frequent refilling.

ii) To meter the seeds: Seed drill machines have a seed metering mechanism that controls the rate of seed flow from the seed hopper to the planting mechanism. The metering mechanism ensures that a consistent and precise amount of seeds is released at regular intervals as the machine moves through the field. This helps achieve uniform seed distribution, which is crucial for even germination and plant growth.

iii) To open the furrow to a regular depth: Seed drill machines are equipped with discs or coulters that create furrows or trenches in the soil at a regular depth. The depth is adjustable, allowing farmers to set the optimal planting depth based on the type of seed and soil conditions. This feature ensures that the seeds are placed at the right depth, which is essential for successful germination and establishment of the plants.

iv) Cover the seeds and compact the earth around them: After the seeds are dropped into the furrows, seed drill machines are designed to cover them with soil. Some machines have specific components like seed tubes or press wheels that gently cover the seeds with soil while also compacting the earth around them. 

v) Place the seed in furrows in an acceptable arrangement: Seed drill machines are designed to ensure proper seed spacing and arrangement within the furrows. The seed metering mechanism and the precise placement of the furrows help achieve the desired seed spacing, preventing overcrowding and facilitating optimal plant growth. Proper seed arrangement also allows for efficient use of resources and maximizes the yield potential of the crop.


Why Seed Drill is Also Known as Fertilizer Drill

Seed cum fertilizer drill is a versatile agricultural machine that can perform dual functions: sowing seeds and applying fertilizers simultaneously during the planting process. This combined functionality allows farmers to efficiently sow seeds and provide essential nutrients to the plants at the same time.

The key features that enable a seed drill to function as a fertilizer drill are:

1. Seed and Fertilizer Metering Mechanism: Seed cum fertilizer drill machines are equipped with a metering mechanism that regulates the flow of both seeds and fertilizers. This mechanism ensures that a precise and controlled amount of seeds and fertilizers is distributed at regular intervals while the machine moves through the field.

2. Dual Hoppers: Seed drills typically have two hoppers, one for seeds and another for fertilizers. These hoppers allow farmers to load seeds and fertilizers separately, ensuring that they are kept separate until they are dropped into the furrows during planting.

3. Coulters or Discs: The seed drill's coulters or discs create furrows in the soil where the seeds and fertilizers are placed. As the seed drill moves along the field, it opens the furrows at a predetermined depth and drops the seeds and fertilizers in their respective rows.

4. Covering and Pressing Wheels: After the seeds and fertilizers are placed in the furrows, the seed drill has to cover and press wheels that cover the furrows with soil while pressing it gently around the seeds and fertilizers. This ensures proper seed-to-soil contact and helps to protect the seeds and fertilizers from being exposed or washed away.

Advantages of Using Seed Drill

Farmers can get the best possible return on their investment that they made in seed drill machines because it brings a wide range of benefits to the farmers. For instance: 

- Precise and uniform seed placement: Seed cum fertilizer drill machines use a metering mechanism to dispense seeds at regular intervals and a consistent depth. This ensures even seed distribution across the field, leading to uniform germination and plant growth.

- With accurate seed metering, seed drill machines help optimize seed usage. Farmers can avoid over-seeding and reduce seed wastage, resulting in cost savings and improved crop yields.

- Seed cum fertilizer drill machines automate the process of sowing seeds, reducing the need for manual labour. They cover large areas quickly and efficiently, saving valuable time during planting operations.

- Seed cum fertilizer drill machine creates furrows and place seeds directly into them, minimizing soil disturbance compared to traditional broadcasting methods. This helps retain soil structure, reduces erosion, and preserves soil health.

- Many seed drill machines are designed as fertilizer drills as well, allowing simultaneous application of seeds and fertilizers in one pass, saving time and money. 

- Proper seed-to-soil contact is achieved by the seed drill's covering and pressing wheels enhances seed germination and improves the chances of successful crop establishment.

- It helps create an environment that reduces weed competition as appropriate depth and space between seeds can be maintained. 

- It improves water utilization as the accurate placement of seeds and proper soil coverage leads to minimize evaporation and water runoff. 

- It encourages enhanced crop yields by proper seed placement resulting in optimal growing conditions. 

Disadvantages of The Seed Drill

While a seed drill is a great machine to own to promote optimal seed placements and growth, it's not free from disadvantages. It has evident downsides like:

- They are expensive machinery to purchase which may pose a financial challenge for small-scale or resource-constrained farmers.

- They require regular maintenance and occasional repairs. These maintenance costs can add up over time and become huge. 

- It only performs expectedly under certain soil and weather conditions. It’s not useful in very rocky or heavily compacted soils. Hence, it’s not meant for everyone. 

- Seed cum fertilizer drill machines are most effective when used in fields that have been properly ploughed or prepared. They may not perform as well in fields with significant crop residues or debris.

- While seed drills are versatile, there may be better options for some types of crops. Some crops, such as small-seeded or irregularly shaped ones, may require specialized planting equipment.

- Proper operation of seed drill machines requires training and skill. Inexperienced users may not achieve optimal results in term.



A seed drill machine is a great resource to invest in as it enables farmers to maintain adequate spacing between seeds, cover large lands in a short period, and even help in fertilizer distribution. However, it demands huge investment and skills. You need to get trained before using it in a way that will deliver optimal results. Nonetheless, the machine empowers farmers to a great extent. 

Tractor Gyan will continue bringing such useful information to Indian farmers so that they always make the right choice for them. Stay connected with us, get the latest updates about farming, and remain productive. 

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Recently Asked Question about Seed Drill: Functions, Components & Advantages

What is a seed drill?

A seed drill is a device or an agricultural tool that sows seeds in the soil at a uniform depth and spacing.

What are the components of a seed drill machine?

A seed drill consists of a frame, seedbox, seed metering mechanism, furrow openers, covering device, and transport wheels.

How does a seed drill cover the seeds?

Seed drill machines use components like press wheels, rollers, or packers to gently cover the seeds with soil after they're dropped into the furrows.

Why is a seed drill known as a fertilizer drill?

A seed cum fertilizer drill combines seed and fertilizer application during planting, ensuring seeds and essential nutrients are delivered simultaneously.

How does a seed drill benefit farmers?

Seed drill machines enable precise seed placement, uniform distribution, and efficient sowing, leading to optimized seed usage, time savings, and improved crop yields.

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