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What is Rainwater Harvesting? Importance, Advantages and Disadvantages of Rainwater Harvesting.

    What is Rainwater Harvesting? Importance, Advantages and Disadvantages of Rainwater Harvesting.

17 Aug, 2022

Rainwater Harvesting

When it comes to agriculture which is a primary activity of the country. Practicing agriculture means heavy usage of water for every crop you grow or every seed your sow.

The ecosystem's most valuable, necessary, and abiotic component is water. Today, water is becoming increasingly scarce, and this is largely due to a lack of water conservation efforts and water body pollution. So, let's start conserving water now so that we don't squander any of it.

Water is necessary for human and animal life as well as plants. Therefore, sufficient water resources must be created to support such life. creation of water 

However, supplies should be made to protect the hydrological equilibrium and all biological processes in ecosystems. For marginal lands, this is essential.


What is rain harvesting?




Rainwater Harvesting is a technique for causing, gathering, storing, and preserving rainwater runoff for agriculture in dry and semi-arid climates is known as rainwater harvesting.

Harvesting rainwater has agricultural applications. It can be used to irrigate crops in agricultural fields as well as gardens in residential settings. These save farmers and gardeners money by reducing their dependency on other water supplies.


Techniques of Rainwater harvesting


1. Surface runoff - Rainwater runs off as surface runoff in metropolitan areas. By using the proper techniques, this runoff can be captured and used to recharge aquifers.

2. Rooftop rainwater harvesting - It is a technique for gathering rainwater at its source. Rooftop harvesting involves collecting rainwater from a building or home's roof by turning it into a catchment. It can either be directed to a synthetic recharge system or stored in a tank. If used properly, this strategy, which is less expensive and very beneficial, contributes to raising the local groundwater level.


Different types of rainwater harvesting


1. Water butt

A form of rainwater harvesting device that is quite basic; water Butt gathers rainwater from natural downpours and/or drain pipes and stores it in a container. Most of the water gathered is used to water the garden.

2.  Direct Pumped 

This type of more sophisticated rainwater collecting system is the most popular and often the simplest to install, especially for home premises. Harvested water is easily pushed to the toilets or other appliances using the pump that is housed inside the subsurface tank. A little amount of mains water is delivered to the tank to maintain supply if the tank should be at risk of running dry. Such systems often have two pump configurations for commercial installations (duty standby).

3.  Indirect Pumped

The delivery of water to the outputs in this kind of rainwater collection system is not dependent on gravity. As an alternative, it pumps the collected water to a tank, which might be on any floor of the structure. Additionally, a booster pump is utilized to give pressurized water. One of the biggest advantages of this system is that the booster pumps may be customized to meet the flow and pressure demands of a building with remarkable flexibility.

4.  Retention Ponds

Utilizing natural processes including sedimentation, decomposition, solar disinfection, and soil filtration, retention ponds are used to collect surface runoff water and enhance the quality of water. Although often has a mud bottom, this kind of pond occasionally has a concrete liner. Watering cattle is the most frequent use of the water gathered and retrieved via pond harvesting, although it can also be used for irrigation, groundwater replenishment, and other non-potable uses.

5.  Underground Storage

In locations where most of the rainfall occurs within a single season, underground storage tanks are quite common. These subsurface storage tanks have relatively little evaporation and are insulated. Additionally, if buried below the frost line, the water stored in them does not freeze, which is a significant advantage over surface storage tanks. To supply the outlets with the water that has been stored, underground tanks must be connected to an electric pump.


Advantages of Rainwater Harvesting




1. It lessens soil erosion, flooding, stormwater runoff, and surface water contamination from fertilizers, pesticides, metals, and other sediments. 

2.  With no additives, dissolved salts, or minerals, it is a great supply of water for landscape irrigation. 

3.  It can be used to irrigate crops in agricultural fields as well as gardens in residential settings. 

4. The secret to dry land farming in arid and semi-arid areas is effective water gathering techniques. Out of the 143 M hectares of arable land in our country, around 65% is dryland and rainfed. Additionally, roughly 40–45 percent of the country's food grain production comes from dry land agriculture.

5. Reduces the demand for underground water groundwater supplies are becoming increasingly scarce in many parts of the world. In addition to being expensive, digging deeper wells can also harm the ecosystem by causing the earth where the water was to collapse. Utilizing rainwater sources whenever possible is simply sensible. When there is a drought or when the groundwater supply is exhausted, collected rainwater can be stored and used later.

6. Improve the quality of plant growth gardening and plants can both benefit from rainwater gathering. You may remove salt accumulation from plants and soil by using gathered water. Rainwater collection is often devoid of various pollutants and man-made toxins. Additionally, rain is not chlorinated. The cost of general property upkeep and landscaping requirements can be reduced by using clean, healthy rainwater for plants and trees.


Disadvantages of Rainwater harvesting

1. Uncertain rainfalls or Unpredictable Rainfall, not every location experiences the same quantity of precipitation. Rainfall is also difficult to forecast. Therefore, in locations with little rainfall, it is not wise to rely solely on rainwater for all your water needs. In locations with abundant rainfall, relying solely on rainwater gathering is appropriate.

2. When used to water plants, some roof types may seep chemicals, insects, dirt, or animal excrement that might harm the plants.

3. Rodents, mosquitoes, algae growth, insects, and lizards can contaminate rainwater collection systems and the water that is collected. If they are not adequately managed, they could end up serving as breeding sites for several species.

4. Installation requires some technological know-how. 

5. Rainfall amounts might be restricted by little or no precipitation.


Importance of Rainwater harvesting


The ability to store rainwater for later use is the key benefit of rainwater harvesting. The stored water can be used to revivify groundwater and enhance its quality, just as it can be consumed directly. Additionally, by raising the level of groundwater, it becomes easier to obtain. Wells and tube wells are kept from drying up when fed into the ground level. This boosts the soil's fertility. Rainwater collection controls surface runoff and lowers soil erosion.

Water scarcity is a recurring issue in regions with scarce and inconsistent rainfall. Although it cannot be entirely solved, it can be lessened by collecting rainwater. In areas with erratic rainfall throughout the year, rainwater collection is the appropriate answer to water issues.


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