08 Feb, 2023
India ranks among the top 10 largest coffee-producing countries in the world. Indian coffee is considered one of the finest coffee in the world due to its high-quality taste. Also, India ranks 8th among the top coffee-producing states in India in 2023 with an annual output of coffee being 319 metric tons. Besides this, there are 210,000 coffee producers in India, of which the majority are small and marginal farmers. They mainly grow Arabica beans and Robusta coffee beans in the southern part of India in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala.
India first introduced Coffee in the 16th century in the southern part of our country. These first coffee beans in India were taken from Yemen by Indian Sufi saint baba budan to the hills of Chikmagalur, Karnataka in 1920. Later on, the British increased the commercial coffee plantations in India. Today, Karnataka produces 53% of coffee in India, 28% comes from Kerela and 11% from Tamil Nadu of the total production of 8200 MT (megatonnes). Moreover, 80% of the coffee produced in India is exported to different parts of the world.
Additionally, there are various types of beans produced around the world, which depend on the weather and suitability. India mainly produces two types of coffee; Arabica (most produced in the world) and Robusta. Basically, Arabica is the finest quality coffee with a mild aromatic flavour and a bit sweet taste, whereas Robusta is a bit more bitter and stronger to taste.
Furthermore, India basically grows coffee in shades in forests that offer the ideal conditions and prized coffee. Indian coffee is widely popular for its spiciness, with hints of clove or cardamom, and low acidity.
The Indian government has set up a committee called India Coffee Board that regulates the industry. However, coffee in India is mostly for export as the preferred drink in India is tea.
Most importantly, the coffee industry in India provides direct employment to more than 2 million people. Coffee is majorly produced in the southern part of India. Where Karnataka is the largest coffee-producing state in India with about 70% of the total coffee production in India. Kerala is the second-largest coffee-producing state in India with about 23% of the total production. Tamil Nadu is the third-largest coffee-producing state in India which accounts for 6% of the coffee production. Nearly half of Tamil Nadu’s coffee is grown in the Nilgiri district, which is a major Arabica growing region. Comparatively, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa have a smaller proportion of coffee production.
The other minor northeastern coffee-producing states in India are Mizoram, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Arunachala Pradesh, Assam, and Tripura. Hence, India plays an important role in the group of coffee-producing countries in 2022 and will definitely be going to increase its productivity in 2023 also.
According to the Reports of Statista, Revenue in Coffee production amounts to US$0.92bn in 2023. The market of coffee is expected/ estimated to grow annually by 2.06% (CAGR 2023-2025). Global comparison of coffee production shows that major revenue is generated in the United States which accounts for US$95,580.00m in 2023. According to the figures of the total population,per-person revenues of US$0.65 are generated in 2023. Furthermore, the figures show that the volume of coffee is expected to amount to 50.7mkg by 2025. The current market for the Coffee segment is expected to show a volume growth of 2.3% in 2024. The average volume per person in the Coffee segment is estimated to amount to 0.03kg in 2023.
Now, let's quickly jump into knowing the largest coffee-producing states in India in 2023.
Karnataka is the major producer of coffee in the country. with over 70% production in comparison to other states like Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha. In comparison to the figures of the last five years, the government statistics show an increase in coffee production, which accounts for 3.42 lakh metric tonnes in the year 2021-22. The coffee market in India has transformed drastically from a bulk market to a mainstream market with quality and sustainability requirements in mainstream markets, and new variations in consumer needs.
Two types of coffee are grown here; Arabica coffee which accounts for 30% of production and other is Robusta coffee which accounts for 70% of production. Where Arabica coffee is grown most and of high quality.
Moreover, three districts in Karnataka - Chikmagalur, Kodagu and Hassan have contributed the highest production of coffee. Of which Chikmagalur accounts for 80,150 MT of coffee production (combining arabica and robusta coffee).
Kerala is the most fascinating coffee-producing state in India. Kerala is the second largest producer of coffee in India after Karnataka. Kerala accounts for more than 20% of the total coffee production in India.
In the fiscal year 2022, the Nelliampathi district had the largest production of Arabica coffee beans in Kerala with 1050 metric tons. Around two thousand hectares in the Nelliampathi district contributed to Arabica coffee cultivation in the same year.
The main regions where coffee is produced in large numbers are Wayanad with 60200 hectares, Gavi with 67800 hectares and Nenmara with 77400 hectares area of land. Kerala produces two types of coffee named Robusta and Arabica.
Kerala has very favourable climatic conditions along with a fairly dry spell of 70 to 90 days which makes it a perfect place to grow coffee. A special thing about the coffee plantation in Kerala is that the plants are grown under the shade of tall shady trees.
Tamil Nadu is the third largest coffee-producing state in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent after Kerala. It accounts for 5 % of coffee bean production in India.
In the year 2022, the Pulleys district had the largest production of Arabica coffee in Tamil Nadu with approximately 7000 metric tons. whereas the Anamalai district in Tamil Nadu had the smallest Arabica coffee production in 2022.
The dominating coffee-growing area in Tamil Nadu is Pulleys, Nilgiris, Salem, and Coimbatore. Arka Komal, Premier, Arka Suvidha, Arka Anoop, Arka Samrudhi, and Arka Suman are some famous varieties of coffees grown in Tamil Nādu.
Tamil Nadu has suitable environmental conditions for coffee production. Tamil Nādu has a mean temperature of 70 °F which is ideal for coffee production.
Andhra Pradesh is the fourth highest coffee-producing state in India, which is situated in the southeastern part of the Indian subcontinent. Andhra Pradesh is not a traditional area for coffee production, but still is the highest producer of coffee. Visakhapatnam in Tamil Nadu is mainly popular for ‘Araku coffee’. The bittersweet scent of this araku coffee of Vishakhapatnam is all-pervasive.
In Andhra Pradesh coffee is generally grown in the areas of Chintapalli, Paderu and Maredumilli of Visakhapatnam and East Godavari Districts. In Andhra Pradesh, Paderu has 623 hectares to cultivate, Chintapalli has 1484 hector and RV Nagar has 1903 hector of land.
Andhra Pradesh has a suitable weather conditions and good rainfall which benefits coffee production.
Odisha is a mineral-rich state in the eastern part of India. Odisha is the fifth largest coffee-producing state of India.
Odisha mainly produces Arabica coffee beans. However, the main coffee-producing districts in Odisha are Koraput, Rayagada, Phulbani, and keonjhar. Thе соffее сultіvаtіоn in this region has сhаngеd thе lіfеѕtуlе оf many citizens there, as the people are getting employment in different places lіkе nurѕеrу рrоduсtіоn оf thе соffее рlаntѕ, fеrtіlіѕеr аррlісаtіоn аnd рrосеѕѕіng wоrkѕ. The climate here offersmоdеrаtе wаrmth аnd hіgh rаіnfаll, which in turn benefits coffee plantation. Moreover, Коrарut, Кеоnјhаr Rауаgаdа іѕ thе mаіn соffее рrоduсіng аrеа іn thе ѕtаtе оf Оdіѕhа.
Meghalaya is situated at an altitude of over 4,000 feet above sea level across many places and a unique climate contributes to producing some of the most distinctive high-quality coffee in the country. Currently, the coffee is grown in 6 districts across the state, covering a total area of approximately 300 hectares with an estimated yield of 200 metric tonnes.
Tripura is considered the largest producer of coffee in North East India. The state also is an alternative plantation region of coffee and rubber in India. Major coffee plantation in Tripura is carried out in Kumarghat and Jampui hills in Unakoti district. Two types of coffee Robusta and Arabica are planted here. Plus, a small plantation is also located in Sabroom. The annual production of coffee in this region is around 10 to 12 MT. Тhе ѕtаtе іѕ widely popular fоr іtѕ соffее рrоduсtіоn.
So, these were the top 7 coffee-producing states in India. Through this data, we get to know that India also plays a vital role in producing the most demanding beverages in the world. On the other side, India is also a major exporter of the finest coffee in the world.
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