16 Sep, 2022
What is Floriculture?
The cultivation and sale of flowers are known as floriculture. Production, processing, marketing, and distribution of flowers are all included. The growing of flowers is known as floriculture. It is a subset of horticulture that focuses on growing flowers for ornamental purposes.
The most gorgeous and enticing creations of nature are flowers. Since ancient times, they have served as representations of various feelings, including love, joy, and happiness. The floriculture industry makes considerable use of flowers to produce attractive plants.
The raw materials needed to cut flowers, flower buds, floral essences, flower extracts, flower oils, and other flower-related goods are flowers. In wealthy nations, flower production is a huge industry. The food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries all integrate flowers as ingredients.
Additionally, flowers are utilized as decorative things in homes, gardens, workplaces, hotels, and other locations. For celebrations like birthdays, anniversaries, marriages, and other special occasions, flowers are also given as gifts.
One of the Horticulture Industry's most promising subsectors is Floriculture, which is significant from an aesthetic, social, and economic perspective. It can produce year-round employment opportunities and earn foreign currency. The primary agricultural exports from many nations are various value-added goods from the floriculture industry.
Different types of floriculture practiced in India
1. Cut flowers
The cute flowers are long-lasting flowers that are plucked with the stalk, specifically for vase arrangements. These make up a sizable portion of the global trade in floricultural goods. Rose, carnation, chrysanthemum, orchid, gerbera, Lilium, anthurium, gladiolus, narcissus, bird of paradise, heliconia, anemone, ranunculus, and tulip are significant cut flower crops.
2. Loose flowers
From plants with no stalk, loose flowers are plucked just below the calyx. They are highly sought-after and used to create veni, rangoli, bracelets, hair ornaments for ladies, garlands, garden displays, religious offerings, and decorative uses, particularly in Asian nations. Jasmine, hibiscus, spider lily, Chandani, and marigold are some of the examples of loose flowers.
3. Cut greens
Cut greens or cut foliage (leaves and stems) are long-lasting and in high demand. They are appealing in form, color, and freshness. Along with cut flowers, these are used as fillers in floral arrangements and elsewhere to add aesthetic value. These flower products can also be used to create other lovely fresh floral designs and arrangements, such as bouquets, wreaths, and home interior decorations.
The demand for natural floral extracts, such as flower-derived perfumes, is rising daily. Some flowers, including rose, jasmine, screw pine (kewra), and tuberose, are used to extract essential oils that are then utilized to make attar or perfumes.
In general, nurseries offer advice on how to cultivate ornamentals and maintain gardens in addition to reproducing and distributing plants and planting supplies. Providing different types of plants and planting material, such as nursery seedlings or prepared plants of trees, shrubs, climbers, annual and perennial plants, foliage plants, bulbous plants, cacti and succulents, palms, indoor plants, grasses, seeds, bulbs, etc., is lucrative retail or wholesale business for ornamental plant nurseries.
6. Potted plants
These plants can be grown indoors and in tiny gardens and homes. Although some flowering plants are frequently used as potted plants, they are mostly foliage plants cultivated in pots.
7. Dried flowers
Flowers and foliage are produced by plants of many kinds for a brief time, and they are only available during that time. The dry flower technique makes it simple to dry, conserve, and treat flowers while keeping their aesthetic appeal and timeless quality. The dahlia, larkspur, paper flower, annual chrysanthemum, marigold, strawflower, lotus pods, and other flowers can be air dried and used as dry flowers.
8. Hanging plants
They are flowering or foliage roses in ornamental pots that are either annual or perennial hanging basket plants that hang from the ceiling in the patio, the doorway part, or from decorative plant poles.
Status of floriculture in India
According to the National Horticultural Database, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Haryana are the leading flower-producing States.
The business in floriculture makes the economy of India bloom out loud. The northern and southern parts of the country India is rich in natural resources like plants, fresh flowers its seeds, and well equipped with pollination activities which adds to the process of reproduction and invention of new flowers and types.
In addition to flowers, which are the primary crop, modern floricultural crops also produce value-added goods that are exclusive and likely to face less competition on the global market under a WTO scenario. These products include essential oils of rose, tuberose, jasmine, tiger lily, and various plant extracts that are widely used in pharmaceuticals and medicine.
Floriculture enterprises produce fresh and dried flowers and leaves for a variety of markets, including wholesale flower markets, florists, retail outlets, and in certain cases for export. There is a large market for both floriculture and horticulture. The future of industrial floriculture is very promising. The scope of commercial floriculture is significantly influenced by several different factors, including soil, environment, labor, transportation, and demand.
The many revenue-generating activities in the floriculture business include the production of cut flowers, loose flowers, dry flowers, nurseries, potted plants, the seed industry, the extraction of essential oils, and value-added goods.
Seasonal flower and seed production is a well-established industry in Punjab, Karnataka, and Maharashtra. Several seed businesses have established manufacturing units in key flower-growing States to supply the demand for flower seeds.
Six Agri-export zones for floriculture have been established by the Indian government in Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu (two zones), Uttarakhand, and Karnataka.
Certain governmental schemes for floriculture
The government has launched several programs to promote and develop the floriculture industry, such as "Integrated Development of Commercial Floriculture," which aims to increase the production and productivity of traditional as well as cut flowers by making quality planting material available, producing high-quality off-season flowers through protected cultivation, improving the handling of flowers after harvest, and training people for a scientific career. Different departments have been established by many state governments to promote floriculture in their respective states.
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